Posted on 06.08.2004 - 15:53 EDT in SCIENCE & TECH NEWS by Rons_ROV_Links
The National Science Foundation (NSF) will provide funding for the vehicle through a cooperative agreement with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). A 2004 National Research Council (NRC) report, Future Needs of Deep Submergence Science, recommended construction of a new, more capable HOV as part of a suite of tools for ocean research, which includes remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The preliminary report of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy also points to the importance of research and exploration of the deep seafloor, and to the excitement emanating from such missions to the depths of the ocean.
A merit-based review of an unsolicited proposal led to a cooperative agreement with WHOI for the first phase of construction.
• A faster descent speed, and faster submerged forward speed
• Better visibility and lighting for the pilot and two observers, with five windows ## called view
ports ## instead of the three on the current submersible
• A variable ballast system that will enable the vehicle to hover to conduct mid-water research
at multiple depths anywhere in the water column on a single dive
• Improved ergonomics and more space in the 2.1-meter (7-foot) diameter personnel sphere for
the pilot and two scientists
• The ability to carry heavier science payloads, and more storage space for samples
• Improved sensors, tools and data collection systems
• Improved maneuverability and manipulation, and upgraded navigation systems
• Higher speed data communication with the surface ship, and via satellite to shore
The replacement for Alvin will require no major modifications to the 274-foot Research Vessel Atlantis, its support ship, and its operating costs will be similar to those of the current Alvin.
The replacement HOV will provide expanded access for scientific research in areas of the ocean that are virtually unexplored. Mid-ocean ridge research and the study of hydrothermal and fluid flow processes on the ridge flanks near oceanic trenches and along the deeper portion of the continental margins will rely heavily on the HOV for its unsurpassed observation and sampling capabilities.
"The replacement submersible will provide a truly remarkable tool to feed the imagination," said Patricia Fryer, chair of the University - National Oceanographic Laboratory System Deep Submergence Science Committee, which advises the National Deep Submergence Facility on behalf of the scientific user community. "The more we can learn about the mysteries of the deep, where life is challenged by the most extreme conditions, the better we'll be able to understand how to cope with the challenges we ourselves face on this ocean planet."
The project will be led by project director Barrie Walden and project manager Robert Brown. Both are long-time members of the WHOI submersible engineering and operations group, which operates the current Alvin. In addition, an HOV Replacement Oversight Committee will include scientists, engineers and other research vehicle operators from around the country to advise the project.
Walden noted that the replacement HOV will present a number of technical challenges. New types of flotation material, capable of withstanding pressures of nearly 10,000 pounds per square inch at 6,500 meters depth, must be fabricated and certified for use. Forging and welding the three-inch thick titanium personnel sphere is complex. New types of batteries to power the vehicle will be required, and a variable ballast system must be designed to adjust for changes in payload, to enable the sub to descend and ascend, and to hover to conduct research in the mid-water zone.
Alvin is one of only five deep-diving human occupied vehicles in the world and the only such HOV in the United States. Alvin revolutionized deep-sea exploration by providing U.S. scientists with an unprecedented ability to routinely conduct research on the deep-sea floor, at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents with exotic marine life now believed to hold clues to the origin of life on Earth.
More than 4,000 dives have transported 12,000 people to the seafloor to spend 16,000 hours on the bottom to observe and sample the deep. With a current average of 175 dives per year, Alvin has a reliability record greater than 95 percent over the past 20 years, with the remaining percentage lost mainly to bad weather.
Alvin has been a major participant in historic expeditions, from Project FAMOUS and the confirmation of the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift in 1974, to the discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977 and black smokers two years later, to exploring the wreck of RMS Titanic in1986. More than 1,800 refereed science publications include results of Alvin -based research.
"The replacement HOV will significantly expand our access to the deep sea allowing researchers to explore the frontiers of ocean science in areas previously beyond their grasp," said Maurice Tivey, WHOI's acting chief scientist of deep submergence. "It is a major step forward in ocean exploration and brings a new level of versatility and capability to scientists wishing to pursue research projects on a routine basis in areas they have long wanted to study but have been unable to reach. HOVs provide unprecedented 3-D visibility and ease of sampling, put observations in context, and are an essential tool for educating students and the public about the meaning and value of deep-ocean research."
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, with an annual budget of nearly $5.58 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 universities and institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 40,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes about 11,000 new funding awards. The NSF also awards over $200 million in professional and service contracts yearly.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, independent marine research and engineering and higher education organization located in Falmouth, MA. Its primary mission is to understand the oceans and their interaction with the Earth as a whole, and to communicate a basic understanding of the ocean's role in the changing global environment. Established in 1930 on a recommendation from the National Academy of Sciences, the Institution operates the US National Deep Submergence Facility that includes the deep-diving submersible Alvin, a fleet of global ranging ships and smaller coastal vessels, and a variety of other tethered and autonomous underwater vehicles. WHOI is organized into five departments, interdisciplinary institutes and a marine policy center, and conducts a joint graduate education program with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
August 6, 2004
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution